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As like any other cancer, gallbladder cancer is caused by mutations in the gallbladder cell. In the human body, each cell has something known as tumor suppressor genes. A tumor suppressor gene prevents cells from becoming cancerous. Take the example p53. p53 is a tumor suppressor protein encoded by the gene TP53 gene. The main function of p53 is to arrest the cell cycle if the DNA in the cell has been damaged. If however, there is a mutation in the p53 encoding gene, the cell will continue to replicate in spite of any DNA damage. To add to this, if the DNA damage is such that it makes the cell cancerous, it will lead to growth and proliferation of a cancer cell, leading to tumor.
Apart from oncogenes, mutations in tumor suppressor genes are one of the major causes of many types of cancer, especially gallbladder cancer. Typical tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes related to gallbladder cancer include BRAF, KRAS, HER2, FHIT and CDKN2. A carcinogen is a substance that induces cancerous mutations in the cell. The exact manner in which a carcinogen acts need not always be evident. Different carcinogens act in different ways. At the same time, certain conditions can also prove to be 'carcinogenic'; they make a person more susceptible to develop cancer. In case of gallbladder cancer, the exact causes are unknown, but several conditions have been elicit to increase the risk of developing gallbladder cancer.